Kultur der steirischen Ölkürbisse


Klimanasprüche


Der Kürbis ist relativ wärmebedürftig. Hauptsächlich findet man ihn im südlichen, kontinentalen Klimagebiet und dort insbesondere in milden, sonnigen Lagen (Weinklima). Sehr nachteilig wirken sich nasskaltes Wetter und Wind aus.

 


Bodenansprüche


Der Kürbis bevorzugt leichte bis mittelschwere, gut erwärmbare und humusreiche Böden mit guter Wasserführung und guter Struktur.

 


Fruchtfolge


Eine ideale Vorkultur ist Mais oder auch Getreide mit anschließender Gründecke oder Zwischenfrucht.

 


Bodenvorbereitung


Da der Boden beim Anbau gut abgesetzt sein soll, ist es vorteilhaft, im Herbst zu pflügen (Frostgare, Halten der Winterfeuchtigkeit). Wird nach Mais kultiviert, so sollte man nicht zu tief pflügen.

 


Düngung


Es sollte eine allgemeine Bodenuntersuchung gemacht werden. Für einen optimalen Kürbisanbau sollte der PH-Wert zwischen 5 u. 6 (eher 6 – 6,5) betragen. Der Kürbis stellt relativ geringe Nährstoffansprüche.

 


Saat


Saattermin: Die Aussaat sollte zwischen dem 5. und 15. Mai erfolgen, auf jedem Fall aber in der frostfreien Zeit. Die frühe Saat bewirkt, dass mehr Früchte ansetzen, ebenso sind die Fettgehalte durch die bessere Ausreifung etwas höher.

Saatgutbedarf: 4-5 kg /ha gebeiztes Saatgut
Sorten: Wies, Gleisdorfer
Saattiefe: 3-5 cm (auf leichtem Boden und bei Trockenheit bis zu 4 cm)
Reihenabstand: 1,5-2,2 m
Abstand in der Reihe: 32-45 cm


Dies ergibt 1-1,3 Pflanzen je m² (entspricht ca.10.000 – 13.000 Pflanzen/ha)
Zielpflanzengröße ist ca. 15.000 Pflanzen / ha!

Die Reihensaat hat sich im großflächigen Anbau sehr rasch durchgesetzt. Pneumatische Einzelkornsämaschinen ermöglichen eine exakte Ablage und bringen größere Flächenleistungen.

Vorteile:

  • geringer Arbeitsaufwand
  • mechanische Unkrautbekämpfung
  • leicht durchführbar

 


Pflege der Kultur


Der Aufgang erfolgt je nach Temperatur ca. 6-12 Tage nach der Saat. Die Pflege der Bestände ist ohne großen Aufwand durchführbar. Eine chemische Unkrautbekämpfung ist nur dann erforderlich, wenn starke Verunkrautung herrscht.

 

UNKRAUTBEKÄMPFUNG


Chemische Unkrautbekämpfung


In Österreich stehen zur Zeit 4 Präparate zur Verfügung, die registriert sind.

  1. 1,25 l Dual Gold + 0,25 l Centium (die bessere Variante)
  2. 2 l Successor + 0,25 l Centium
  3. 0,25 l Flexidor + 1,25 l Dual Gold + 0,25 l Centium

Achtzugeben ist auf die Einhaltung der Mindestabstände zu Oberflächengewässern, abhängig von der Abdriftminderungsklasse der verwendeten Spritzdüsen ( 1 – 20 m Mindestabstand je nach verwendeten Mitteln bzw. Düsen). Wichtig ist eine gewisse Bodenfeuchtigkeit, um die Wirksamkeit der Bodenherbizide ausreizen zu können.

Eine günstige Variante ist die Kombination aus chemischer Reihenspritzung und mechanischer Unkrautbekämpfung zwischen den Reihen.

 


Mechanische Unkrautbekämpfung


Man sollte 2 - 3 mal mit einem Hackgerät zwischen den Reihen das Unkraut vernichten. Es gibt auch Hackgeräte, die in den Reihen das Unkraut mechanisch vernichten können, indem diese mit sogenannten Gummi- Fingerhacken ausgerüstet sind. Dies darf nur dann erfolgen, wenn die Kürbispflanze sehr klein ist. Es ist darauf zu achten, dass auslaufende Ranken dabei nicht überfahren werden.

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